The principle of architecture is to create an “interior space” or interior. To isolate and define a room as “inner” has three meanings: floor / earth, wall / world and ceiling / sky.
The combination of the three forms and defines a specific version of the prototype “interior”: the room. The inside of every building is, however, a self-contained space and at the same time represents the “outside” or the world.
The starting point and principle of the architecture is the creation of the “interior”.
In order to live and take root, it is enough to mark a place and build a center. Setting up a giant stone, naming a mountain or painting a hidden cave is enough to make the wilderness appropriate and “human” and to transform it into a “world”. People can live without building. But architectural works can be more than just marking a location. It also creates an “interior”: it separates an exterior space from its surroundings and makes it an “interior”. People not only live in the world, but also live in “houses” (“houses”, cities, countries) that are connected to the world, just like “inside” and “outside”. In a way, it implies that being in the outside world is an important aspect of being in the world. Architecture is therefore not only a means of building the world, but at the same time it can also create many different types of “inside”. Every interior space is not only contained in the world and its part, but also the opposite when facing the world from within. Architectural mediator: It is essentially about establishing and defining the relationship between inside and outside, between family and world.
Before architecture, there was nothing “material component” – “extended matter” – externality. When someone is looking for a place to rest while walking, picnicking, or hiding, he or she automatically looks for naturally closed and sheltered places such as corners, holes near trees, caves and overhangs. Different “natural interiors” are considered to be special, most of these attractions appear attractive and threatening at the same time. Caves, volcanoes, shells, nests, bowls and jugs inspire the (ancient) imagination. In addition, the masses of the earth and the ocean, which each define a human world, are considered to be gigantic “interior”: Both show the limit of the infinite interior of nature.
In this article we will talk about the “principles” of architecture and how they play a role. Not only do we use the correct natural interior design, but we also build man-made interior designs: special objects (structures, buildings) that live in them and in them “houses” are built from which we can see the world through the windows and can interact with the outside world Contacts and transactions come from our “headquarters”. In order to know where we are, to see what is “in” or “out”, we can use a whole range of construction methods, devices and signs from obstacles to walls and different types of gates. , Doors and locks, ribbons, carpets and floors, sound signals, traffic signs, etc. When are you in the house? What is the condition of the exterior walls, front yard, threshold, forecourt and terrace? How “outside” is the terrace or balcony? Where is the “urban area”? Design and architectural architecture should not only construct and decorate the interior, but also first define its relationship to the “outside”. Formulate and enforce concrete spatial relationships. After all, our life includes constantly going back and forth from the inside out, working from wanting and dreaming from “outside” and transforming “outside” into our vision and needs. The end result is the “world on earth” which is a certain kind of domesticated wilderness, a kind of tamed exterior, a kind of global “interior”, a great mythical outdoor with wilderness, nature, ocean and sky. It borders elements that existed before the emergence of culture, and we can never turn them into a “world”.
Number of layers. The primitive building tools that construct the “interior” and clarify its relationship to the “exterior” are threefold. First lay the floor. ,. Architecture begins with covering the floor and such as through carpets, decorative tile floors. Separate pedestals, tables, chairs and beds.
The second method of building artificial interiors is walls. Border lines, hedges, marching fences, thresholds, glass curtains. In principle, chalk lines are sufficient to create “inside” and / or “outside”, although it is not always clear which side is “inside” and which side is “outside”: a person often needs “inside information”. about social or political conflicts to understand how to demarcate the border. In any case, however, the wall is completely different from that of the floor or ceiling. Walls are used to separate the realm from day and night, men and women, humans and animals, etc. In addition, the “rooms” are organized around the “center”.
The wall is also a means of restricting and isolating the “center”. But first of all, the walls are arranged horizontally and divide the human world socially and culturally. They recognize the differences in wealth and power, create distance between the bodies and assign positions to men and women, adults and children. They differentiate between eating and sleeping, dirty and clean, public and private. The type and meaning of the walls also determine the degree of intimacy, the conditions that are publicly visible or audible and how one shields one’s personal life from the view and perspective of others.
The third construction that forms the “interior” is the roof. The roof separates the world below from the sky above. Just one roof is enough to create an “interior”: an umbrella or hat, canopy, tent, even a tree roof … From the outside, the roof covers an “interior”. From the inside, the ceiling can prevent the inside from being exposed to the sky. Sleeping in the open air is undoubtedly an unforgettable poetic experience and adventure, but man must first cover his head with a roof. It is the ceiling, the shape and the scale of the “underground world” inhabited by humans. People feel the difference between the low and flat ceiling of the living room and the huge dome of the church very well. The dome of the church is painted blue and the golden stars represent the firmament. The almost touchable ceiling is very different from the ceiling with a lot of usable space above the head. Looking at the ceiling means thinking of the sky, just as looking through a window means “far away” or the horizon. Hence, ceilings used to be drawn from the walls with decorative objects and covered with signs, painted figures, scenes, and occasionally a sky like the floor. Ordinary modern commercial buildings can easily forget about the ceiling or view it as the back of the upper story, just a white, flat surface. But the ceiling is the last thing that can be seen at the end of the day. The easiest way to construct a fully defined, closed and at the same time symbolically “open” and connected with the world, is to enable the person living there to understand where he is. This is a house consisting of rooms: one floor, four floors, walls and roof, with entrances and windows, can look out. Floor + walls + roof = a box, the house is drawn by a child.
Earth + four cardinal points + heaven = world. Of course, you can build fewer and simpler things. Popular buildings and pre-modern buildings use even more pyramidal or conical volumes, consisting only of roofs and floors without walls. A round house is nothing more than a dome that lives in a sphere. All of these primitive shapes and buildings are architecturally strong. Bruno Taut, the Expressionist architecture of Hermann Finsterlin or the organic architecture of the 1950s and Zaha Hadid created continuous spaces, avoiding boxes and corners.
The meaning of the inside of the building and the interaction with the inside of the building depend entirely on the meaning of “inside” to the common person and the original experience of the prototype from “inside”. The basic reference for experiencing from above and below, left and right, front and back, left and right is of course the body. The physical experience enriches and clarifies the meaning of these words. However, with “internal” and “external” things are not clear. According to Paul Valéry, we begin to think about three overlapping “fields”: first, the externality or the outside world; second, outer world. The second is the inner or partial, but less qualitative “subjective space” or “thought space”; the third is the “thought” or “self” moving around the world.
The body has its place in the “outside world”. Although we don’t understand it very well, the combination of “thinking space” and the body makes the “I” think and immerse in the head and at the same time live in the world that the body is in. This body is one of many things in the world, and it is also an “outside” that includes the “inner space”, the center and the body sensations. But how can such an invisible and unrestricted subjective space be contained in such a compact and narrow physical thing? How can this “thought” become “external” from the “holes”? Are the attributes of inwardness and outwardness, thinking and expanded substance (Descartes), thinking and extensiveness related to one another? Can we see what we are visually? The content of “internal” and “external” is constantly changing, and sometimes the opposite is the case.
Room with a view
The view through the window is always a prototypical experience, it is always an image that symbolizes the world. There is a world outside, but there is also light. Take a look, for example, at the recessed windows in the glass wall of the Maison de Verre by Pierre Chareau. The light inside comes from other places: The inside of the building is a dark place where the light “enters”. The hole in the wall does not necessarily allow a view, but only lets in light, as is the case with most sacred buildings. Hence the interior cannot be symbolically related to the world, but can act as a metaphysical machine and be connected to the principles that constitute reality. The light outside reveals the world, but it is still invisible.
Inside, however, the incident light is separated from the light source without illuminating and exposing the “field of view” and converted into elements. The light itself becomes visible – it becomes softer, filters and diffuses on walls and floors. Then the inside is not only connected to the world or distant places, but also to the unusual, metaphysical starting point, the origin, i.e. things that existed before things existed. Alberti has already written that the windows in religious buildings must be small and high so that the soul is not distracted from what is happening in the world. The hinges of doors, windows and walls cast dark and sharp shadows and holes, so that the depth and darkness associated with the interior are emphasized and projected onto the facade. This is the opposite of what alabaster window glass does indoors. In this way, a dead wall is opened and the contrasting play of light and dark announces the depth of the “interior” to the outside. Architectural imagination can most fundamentally be expressed in projects and unrealized buildings. One can imagine two extreme interiors: “complete” interior and unlimited interior. They are all illusions, that is, they express a wish that is not hindered by the “reality principle” and represent an impossible or crazy inner space – although we are related to the “inner space”, this wish occurs all the time. The first and most primitive architectural phantom is an interior in which the human body and life fit together perfectly: a very individual “cocoon”, the inner wall of which can form a second skin that is insensitive and hard. Bowl. The basic image of the completely individualized space is undoubtedly fascinated by the imagination of architecture and art, as countless works of art show.
First build a house, then decorate. Architecture and interior design can be related in many ways, and they are divided in many ways.
However, it is very important not to build the interior space, it must be created after the construction is completed and the architect will not be able to occupy it. A house will never be “finished” like a factory car. The means of architecture are very powerful and influential, but not very subtle or very diverse. The interior design adds elements and objects, introduces new materials, colors and shapes, distributes light and can create “atmosphere” and indicates meanings that bare buildings cannot. Opening and closing curtains is more sophisticated than windows and blinds. Folding it can soften straight lines and get in and out quickly. The design and equipment of the interior express the strength to enter the interior and to push outwards.